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Trigonometry Table: All Details about Trigonometric Ratios and Formulas

Published on: February 13, 2024

Trigonometry Table: All Details about Trigonometric Ratios and Formulas

Trigonometry is a fundamental branch of mathematics that deals with the relationships between the angles and sides of triangles. It has wide-ranging applications in various fields, such as physics, engineering, architecture, and astronomy. Understanding trigonometric ratios and formulas is essential for solving problems involving triangles and periodic phenomena. In this article, we’ll explore the basics of trigonometry, provide a comprehensive trigonometry table, and delve into important trigonometric ratios and formulas.

Understanding Trigonometric Ratios

Trigonometric ratios are the ratios of the lengths of the sides of a right triangle. The three primary trigonometric ratios are sine (sin), cosine (cos), and tangent (tan), which are defined as follows:

  • Sine (sin): The sine of an angle in a right triangle is the ratio of the length of the side opposite the angle to the length of the hypotenuse.
  • Cosine (cos): The cosine of an angle is the ratio of the length of the adjacent side to the length of the hypotenuse.
  • Tangent (tan): The tangent of an angle is the ratio of the length of the side opposite the angle to the length of the adjacent side.

These ratios can be remembered using the acronym “SOHCAHTOA,”  where “S” stands for sine, “C” stands for cosine, and “T” stands for tangent.

Trigonometry Table

Below is a trigonometry table showing the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for common angles:

Angle (θ)

Sine (sin θ)

Cosine (cos θ)

Tangent (tan θ)



















Important Trigonometric Formulas

In addition to the basic trigonometric ratios, there are several important trigonometric formulas that are frequently used in trigonometry problems. Some of these formulas include:

  • Pythagorean Identity: sin²(θ) + cos²(θ) = 1
  • Sum and Difference Formulas:
    • sin(θ ± φ) = sin(θ)cos(φ) ± cos(θ)sin(φ)
    • cos(θ ± φ) = cos(θ)cos(φ) ∓ sin(θ)sin(φ)
  • Double Angle Formulas:
    • sin(2θ) = 2sin(θ)cos(θ)
    • cos(2θ) = cos²(θ) – sin²(θ)
    • tan(2θ) = 2tan(θ) / (1 – tan²(θ))

Trigonometric Functions

For any right-angled triangle with perpendicular (P), base (B), and hypotenuse (H), the six trigonometric functions are defined as follows:




Relationship to Sides of a Right Triangle


Ratio of perpendicular and hypotenuse


Opposite side / Hypotenuse


Ratio of base and hypotenuse


Adjacent side / Hypotenuse


Ratio of sine and cosine of an angle


Opposite side / Adjacent side


Reciprocal of sine θ

cscθ or cosecθ

Hypotenuse / Opposite side


Reciprocal of cosine θ


Hypotenuse / Adjacent side


Reciprocal of tangent θ


Adjacent side / Opposite side

Tricks to Learn Trigonometric Ratios

A mnemonic device can aid in memorizing trigonometric ratios effortlessly. Consider the phrase “Some people have curly black hair to produce beauty”:

  • Sin θ (Some) = Perpendicular or Hypotenuse
  • Cos θ (Curly) = Base / Hypotenuse
  • Tan θ (To) = Perpendicular/BBase

Memorizing the Trigonometry Table

Learning the Trigonometry Table is simplified by understanding the underlying trigonometric formulas. Utilizing the one-hand trick can further facilitate memorization.

  1. Count the fingers on the left side for the standard angle in the sine table.
  2. Divide the count by 4.
  3. Find the square root of the value obtained in step 2.

Creating a Trigonometry Table

Follow these steps to construct a Trigonometry Table for standard angles:

  1. Create the Table: List angles (0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°) and trigonometric functions.
  2. Evaluate Sine Values: Divide integers 0 through 4 by 4 and find the square root of each.
  3. Evaluate Other Functions: Utilize relationships between sine, cosine, and tangent to determine their values.
  4. Complete the table. Ensure all trigonometric values are accurately filled in.

Trigonometric Formulas and Identities

Trigonometry encompasses various formulas and identities, aiding in the manipulation and simplification of trigonometric expressions. Some key identities include:

  • Pythagorean Identity: sin²θ + cos²θ = 1
  • Secant-Tangent Identity: sec²θ – tan²θ = 1
  • Cosecant-Cotangent Identity: cosec²θ – cot²θ = 1

These identities find extensive use in solving trigonometric problems involving complementary and supplementary angles.

Trigonometry Table Examples

To illustrate the practical application of the trigonometry table, let’s solve a couple of examples:

  1. Given sin θ = 4/5, determine all trigonometric values.
  2. Find the value of cos 45° + 2 sin 60° + tan 60°.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

  1. What is trigonometry? Trigonometry is a mathematical branch dealing with the study of angles and sides of triangles.
  2. Who Invented the Trigonometry Table? The trigonometry table was pioneered by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus around 127 BC.
  3. What Are the Standard Angles in a Trigonometric Table? Standard angles include 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°.
  4. What Are the Six Basic Functions in a Trigonometric Table? The six basic trigonometric functions are sine, cosine, tangent, secant, cotangent, and cosecant.
  5. How Can I Learn the Trigonometry Table? Utilize mnemonic devices and understand underlying trigonometric relationships to aid in memorization.

Trigonometry is a powerful tool with applications across various fields, from engineering to astronomy. By mastering the trigonometry table and associated formulas, one can navigate complex mathematical problems with confidence and precision.


  1. Trigonometry plays a crucial role in various fields of science and mathematics. By understanding trigonometric ratios and formulas, you can solve a wide range of problems involving triangles and periodic phenomena. The trigonometry table provided in this article serves as a handy reference for common angles and their corresponding trigonometric values. Make sure to practice applying these concepts to enhance your proficiency in trigonometry.

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